Rhinocladiella is a cosmopolitan fungus which can be found in
soil, herbaceous substrates, and decaying wood.
This genus lacks a
known sexual state and is generally classified as a
dark – walled
dematiaceous fungus. There are two existing species under the
Rhinocladiella genus namely, Rhinocladiella aquaspersa and
Rhinocladiella atrovirens while the remaining five species have been
obsolete and have been only considered by experts as synonyms for a few
species under Fonsecaea and Exophiala genera.
Pathogenicity and Health Effects
To date, there are only three
cases of subcutaneous infection that have been reported as caused by
Growth rate is slow to moderately rapid;
Colony texture is velvety;
surface and reverse colony color is olive black.
Hyphae are septate and brown in color;
Conidia are pale brown in color, ellipsoidal to club – shaped, unicellular
mostly or maybe bicellular at times, borne on denticles, and are arranged
in a closely spaced series at and beneath the tip of the conidiophore; and
Conidiophores are brown in color, simple, and cylindrical in shape.
unlike Fonsecaea, does not have secondary ranks of conidia arising
out of the initially formed conidia. Only a single rank of conidia is
observed at the tip of the conidiophore. It should be also noted,
however, that Rhinocladiella forms are also occasionally observed
in polymorphous fungi such as Exophiala and Fonsecaea.