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Definition of Mold Words & Terms

Get acquainted with frequently encountered mold words, mold definitions & mold terms and explanations.
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      Adiaspiromycosis - a pulmonary disease of many species of rodents and occasionally of humans, caused by the inhalation of spores of the fungus Emmonsia parva and E. crescens. It is marked by huge spherules in the lungs, with symptoms ranging from the sub - clinical to a bilateral pneumonia.

      Adiaspore - a large, globose, thick-walled conidium, usually produced by Emmonsia (Chrysosporium) parvum, in the lungs of humans and animals.

      Aleurioconidium (pl. aleurioconidia) - a thallic conidium released by lysis or fracture of the supporting cell.

      Annellide - a specialized conidiogenous cell producing conidia in basipetal succession by a series of short percurrent proliferations (annellations). The tip of an annellide increases in length and becomes narrower as each subsequent conidium is formed.

      Ankylosing spondylitis is a form of chronic inflammation of the spine and the sacroiliac joints which are located in the low back where the sacrum meets the iliac bones; chronic inflammation in these areas causes pain and stiffness around the spine which overtime would lead to a complete cementing together of the vertebrae, a process called ankylosis which, in turn, results to total loss of spine mobility; Furthermore, it is also considered as a systemic rheumatic disease which can cause inflammation in other joints away from the spine, as well as other organs such as the eyes, heart, lungs, and kidneys.

      Anthropophilic organisms which are attracted to humans especially, as a source of food.

      Anthropophilic dermatophyte dermatophyte that is found in association with humans and produces a mild, chronic inflammation.

      Apophysis - A swelling. The term is primarily applied to the funnel - shaped swelling of a sporangiophore, immediately below the columella, seen in some Zygomycetes.

      Arsine - a colorless, flammable, very poisonous gas, H3As, having an odor like - garlic and used in chemical warfare, as a solid - state doping agent, and in organic synthesis.

      Arthroconidium (pl. arthroconidia) - a thallic conidium released by either the splitting of a double septum or by the fragmentation or lysis of a disjunctor cell.

      Ascospore a haploid spore produced within an ascus following karyogamy and meiosis.

      Ascus (pl. Asci) - A sac-like cell containing ascospores and are a characteristic of the Ascomycetes.

      Aspergilloma the fungus forms a mycelial ball in a lung cavity produced by an earlier attack of tuberculosis. The wall of the cavity may erode, causing the patient to spit blood, and necessitating surgical intervention.

      Aspergillosis infection observed especially in people with a deficient immune system, with clinical features which include invasive lung infection and disseminated disease, commonly with cough, chest pains, fever, and spitting up blood; it may also mimic asthma with cough and noise on breathing in or sinusitis with fever, localized pain.

      Asthma - a chronic inflammation of the bronchial tubes (airways) that causes swelling and narrowing (constriction) of the airways, resulting to difficulty breathing; the bronchial narrowing is usually either totally or at least partially reversible with treatments.

      Basocatenate - used to describe such chains of conidia where the youngest conidium is at the basal end of the chain.

      Biseriate phialides arising from metulae as in the genus Aspergillus.

      Brain abscess (or cerebral abscess) - is caused by inflammation and collection of infected material coming from local sources which include ear infection, infection of paranasal sinuses, infection of the mastoid air cells of the temporal bone, epidural abscess; or from remote infectious sources, such as lung, heart, kidney, and etc., within the brain tissue. The infection may also be introduced through a skull fracture following a head trauma or surgical procedures.

      Bronchiectasis - chronic dilatation of the bronchial tubes.

  Bronchopulmonary aspergillosis - usually caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, which colonizes mucus within the bronchi, evoking a severe allergic reaction.

      Cellulitis - a spreading inflammation of subcutaneous or connective tissue.

      Chlamydoconidium (pl. Chlamydoconidia) - a thick-walled, thallic conidium formed within the vegetative hyphae; Chlamydoconidia function as organs of perennation rather than dissemination.

      Chromoblastomycosis a chronic subcutaneous infection characterized by verrucous lesions and the formation of brown, sclerotic fission cells in tissue which appear as similar to copper pennies.

      Cleistothecium (pl. cleistothecia) - an enclosed ascocarp containing randomly dispersed asci.

      Collarettes A small collar. Usually, a remnant of a cell wall present at the tip of a phialide, or around a sporangiophore.

      Columella (pl. columellae) - a sterile dome - like structure at the tip of a sporangiophore or within a sporangium

      Conidiophore - a specialized hypha upon which conidia develop.

      Conidium (pl. conidia) - an asexual reproductive propagule formed in any manner that does not involve cytoplasmic cleavage and conidia function as organs of dissemination.

      Dematiaceous fungus type of fungus with melanin in the cell walls of its conidia, hyphae, or both resulting to its dark color.

      Dermatophytes are fungi that require keratin for growth and can cause superficial infections of the skin, hair and nails.

    Dermatophytosis - are referred to as "tinea" infections; a characteristic feature is an inflammatory pattern at the edge of the skin lesion, noted by redness and scaling or occasionally, blister formation.

      Dermatomycosis - fungal infection of the skin, especially of moist parts covered by clothing.

      Dimorphic fungus fungus having two different morphological forms.

      Echinulate - covered with delicate spines.

      Endocarditis - an inflammation and infection of a heart valve or the lining of the heart's chambers.

Endophthalmitis is the term used by medical eye doctors (ophthalmologists) to describe an inflammation of tissues inside the eyes.

      Entomophthoromycosis - A chronic inflammatory or granulomatous disease generally restricted to the limbs, chest, back or buttocks primarily occurring in children with predominance in males.  Initially, lesions appear as subcutaneous nodules, which develop into massive, firm, indurated, painless swellings, which are freely movable over the underlying muscle but are attached to the skin which is hyperpigmented but not ulcerated.

      Eumycetoma - is the fungal form of mycetoma, a disease of the skin and of connective tissue.

      Fascia - a sheet or band of fibrous connective tissue enveloping, separating, or binding together muscles, organs, and other soft structures of the body.

      Fungemia the presence of fungi in the blood.

      Geniculate - bent like a knee.

      Geophilic species that is usually recovered from the soil.

      Geophilic dermatophyte dermatophyte that is found in association with soil but occasionally infects humans and animals; it may cause a marked inflammatory reaction, which limits the spread of the infection and may lead to a spontaneous cure but may also leave scars.

      Hepatocellular carcinoma a tumor in which the cancer starts during adulthood in cells in the liver and is characterized by a hard lump just below the rib cage on the right side due to swelling of the liver, discomfort in the upper abdomen on the right side, pain around the right shoulder blade, or yellowing of the skin also called as jaundice.

      Hyaline colorless

      Hyalohyphomycosis - an infection caused by a fungus having colorless mycelium that usually occurs as a result of indwelling catheters, steroid therapy, immunosuppressive drugs or cytotoxins, or the body's decreased resistance to postsurgical infection.

      Hyphae (pl. hyphae) - a single filament of a fungus.

      Hlle cells are thick - walled cells developed by budding at the tips of specialized hyphae, with characteristic thin-walled pores, and may envelop the developing cleisthothecium thus, may serve as nurse cells.

      Keratin - a tough, insoluble protein substance that is the chief structural constituent of hair, nails, horns, and hooves.

      Keratinophilic fungi - organisms that can utilize keratin as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen.

      Keratitis - term used to define a wide variety of corneal infections, irritations and inflammations.

      Keratomycosis is a fungal infection of the cornea.

      Kerion - fungal infection of the hair follicles accompanied by secondary bacterial infection and marked by raised, usually pus-filled and spongy lesions.

      Lymphocutaneous is a term associated with a specific infection which affects the skin, subcutaneous tissues and regional lymphatics.

      Macroconidium (pl. macroconidia) - the larger of two different types of conidia produced by a fungus in the same manner.

      Microconidium (pl. microconidia) - the smaller of two different types of conidia produced by a fungus in the same manner.

      Meningitis inflammation of the meninges usually due to infection from bacteria but sometimes from protozoan, virus, or other causes and is characterized by early non specific and flu like symptoms and are followed by more serious symptoms which include confusion, fever, headache, loss of appetite, rash, stiff neck, vomiting, and coma; the onset is frequently rapid, and the disease can be fatal within a very short period of time, if untreated, as it can cause permanent damage to the brain and nervous system and is sometimes the cause of deafness.

      Meningoencephalitis - inflammation of the brain and meninges.

      Mycetoma is a clinical syndrome characterized by tumefaction, draining sinuses and sclerotia.

     Mycotic abortion bovine abortion associated with fungi - derived from spores in moldy hay and straw, and is characterized by presence of hyphae in the thickened and necrotic placental cotyledons, in the intercaruncular areas, and in the fetal stomach contents; placental infection probably takes place by hematogenous spread with an incubation period of one to two months and skin lesions on the fetus are occasionally present.

      Myocarditis - an inflammation of the myocardium, the heart muscle.

      Paracoccidioidomycosis - A chronic mycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, characterized by primary lesions of the lungs with dissemination to many internal organs, by conspicuous ulcerative granulomas of the mucous membranes of the cheeks and nose with extensions to the skin, and by generalized lymphangitis.

      Onychomycosis is the term used both to refer to non dermatophyte nail infections or to any fungal nail infection caused by any fungus.

     Osteomyelitis is an acute or chronic bone infection, usually caused by bacteria; the infection that causes osteomyelitis often is in another part of the body and spreads to the bone via the blood.

      Ostiole - an opening or pore in an ascocarp or a pycnidium.

    Otitis - an inflammation of the ear, which may be marked by pain, fever, hearing abnormalities, deafness, tinnitus and vertigo.

      Otomycosis a superficial infection of the outer ear canal which may which may either be sub acute or acute and is characterized by inflammation, pruritus, scaling, and severe discomfort.

      Paracoccidioidomycosis - A chronic mycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, characterized by primary lesions of the lungs with dissemination to many internal organs, by conspicuous ulcerative granulomas of the mucous membranes of the cheeks and nose with extensions to the skin, and by generalized lymphangitis. Also called Almeida's disease, Lutz-Splendore-Almeida disease, paracoccidioidal granuloma, South American blastomycosis.

      Perithecium (pl. Perithecia) - An enclosed ascocarp characterized an apical ostiole and by asci arranged in a basal tuft or hymenium layer.

      Peritonitis an inflammation of the peritoneum tissue that lines the abdominal wall and covers most of the organs in the abdomen; can result from infection, injury, or certain diseases and symptoms may include swelling of the abdomen, severe pain and weight loss.

   Phaeohyphomycosis a mycotic infection of humans and lower animals caused by a number of dematiaceous (brown-pigmented) fungi where the tissue morphology of the causative organism is mycelial.

      Phialide - a specialized conidiogenous cell that produces conidia in basipetal succession without increasing in length.

    Pneumonia an inflammation of one or both lungs, it is frequently but not always due to infection which may be bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral and symptoms may include chest pain, chills, cough with sputum production, fever, and shortness of breath.

  Pseudallescheriasis - Any of various clinical disorders resulting from infection with the fungus Pseudallescheria boydii which include pulmonary colonization, fungemia, and invasive pneumonitis as well as mycotic keratitis, endophthalmitis, endocarditis, meningitis, sinusitis, brain abscesses, cutaneous and subcutaneous infections and disseminated systemic infections.

Pulmonary aspergillosis is an allergic reaction to a fungus called Aspergillus, which causes inflammation of the airways and air sacs of the lungs.

      Pycnidium - a flask-shaped asexual structure containing conidia, found in certain fungi.

      Rhizoid - a short branching root-like hyphae seen in some Zygomycetes.

      Rudimentary rhizoid a poorly developed rhizoid, as seen in Rhizomucor species.

      Saprobe - an organism that utilizes dead organic matter for food.

   Sarcoidosis a systemic disease of unknown causes characterized by widespread lesion formation, known as granulomas, in the eyes, liver, lungs, parotid glands, skin, spleen, and the lymph nodes of the mediastinum; it is often associated with a depression of cellular immunity and it is most prevalent in the Southern United States. 

      Sclerotia - a mass of thick - walled cells formed by the vegetative hyphae that function as an organ of perennation.

      Septate hypha divided by a septum or septa.

    Sinusitis an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses which may be associated with viral respiratory infections and seasonal allergic problems or hay fever.

      Sporangiophore - a specialized hypha that bears a sporangium.

      Sporangiospore - an asexual spore produced within a sporangium.

      Sporangium (pl. sporangia) - a sac-like structure producing asexual spores endogenously by cytoplasmic cleavage.

      Spore - a reproductive propagule formed by either meiosis or mitosis. However, if by asexual means, cleavage of cytoplasm is usually involved.

      Teleomorph is the sexual form or morphology of a fungus.

      Thermophile - an organism that thrives at a temperature of 50C or higher.

     Tinea - is a fungus that can grow on your skin, hair or nails and as it grows, it spreads out in a circle, leaving normal-looking skin in the middle which makes it look like a ring.

      Tinea barbae - Inflammation of the hair follicles in a shaved area of the face and neck caused by a fungus; ringworm of the beard. Also called barbers itch.

      Tinea capitis - An infection of the scalp caused by fungi of the genera Microsporum or Trichophyton, characterized by itchy, scaly patches and sometimes hair loss; ringworm of the scalp.

      Tinea corporis - a fungal infection involving areas of the skin not covered by hair, characterized by a pink to red rash and often considerable itching, and usually caused by species of Trichophyton or Microsporum; ringworm of the body.

      Tinea cruris - A fungal infection of the skin of the groin area, occurring more commonly in warm weather and among males and characterized by red ring - like areas, sometimes with small blisters, and severe itching; ringworm of the groin. Also called jock itch.

      Tinea faciei - is a superficial dermatophyte infection limited to the glabrous skin of the face.

      Tinea favosa - is usually considered a variety of Tinea capitis because it classically involves the scalp, however, this mycotic infection may also involve glabrous skin and nails.  It is characterized by the occurrence of dense masses of mycelium and epithelial debris forming yellowish cup-shaped crusts called scutula.

      Tinea imbricata - an eruption of concentric rings of overlapping scales that form papulosquamous patches on the skin, caused by the fungus Trichophyton concentricum.

      Tinea manuum - a fungal infection of the hands.

      Tinea nigra - A superficial fungal infection of skin characterized by brown to black macules which usually occur on the palmar aspects of hands and occasionally the plantar and other surfaces of the skin. World - wide distribution, but more common in tropical regions of Central and South America, Africa, Southeast Asia and Australia.

      Tinea pedis - a contagious fungal skin infection caused by a species of Trichophyton or Epidermophyton that usually affects the feet, especially the skin between the toes, and is characterized by itching, blisters, cracking, and scaling; ringworm of the foot. Also called Athletes foot.

      Tinea unguium fungal nails, also referred to as onychomycosis.

Tuberculosis an infectious disease of humans and animals caused by tubercle bacillus and characterized by the formation of tubercles on the lungs and other tissues of the body, coughing up of mucus and sputum, fever, weight loss, and chest pain; the disease often develops long after the initial infection.

      Uniseriate phialides arising directly from a vesicle as in the genus Aspergillus.

      Vesicle a swollen cell in which grows a line of phialides that produce chains of conidia or spores as seen in Aspergillus species.

      Woods Light ultraviolet light produced by Wood's lamp.

      Zoophilic organisms which prefer lower animals to humans as a source of food.

     Zoophilic dermatophyte dermatophytes that are found in association with animals and can cause marked inflammatory reactions in humans who have contact with infected cats, dogs, cattle, horses, birds, or other animals.

    Zygomycosis - refers to the angiotropic (blood vessel - invading) infection produced by the various Zygomycetes fungi; this disease is also sometimes referred to as mucormycosis, but the term zygomycosis is preferred.

      Zygospore - a thick-walled sexual spore formed by the fusion of two similar gametangia; characteristic of the Zygomycetes.

Also please read Mold Terms and Definitions

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