Toxic Black Mold Inspection, Testing, Removal, & Prevention
in Midwestern and Eastern USA and Canada by Environmental Hygienists and Industrial Hygienists Phillip & Divine Fry

Email   ►Phone USA 1-810-639-0523 or 1-480-310-7970
Toxic Mold Species Information Toxic Mold Pictures  Mold Health Effects  Mold Inspection 
Mold Removal  Mold Terms & Definitions  Mold Victim Rights  Site Map

Cladophialophora Mold Species

Cladophialophora species are causative agents of Chromoblastomycosis, Cerebral Phaeohyphomycosis, and Phaeohyphomycosis.

(Information from @ 2005)



Taxonomic Classifications


Kingdom: Fungi
Phylum: Ascomycota

Sub Phylum: Ascomycotina
Genus: Cladophialophora



Cladophialophora Mold Pictures




Picture of Cladophialophora microscopic morphology

(Image Courtesy of @ 2005)


Take note of the microscopic morphology Cladophialophora carrionii showing typical Cladosporium - type conidial ontogeny with elongate conidiophores producing branched acropetal chains of smooth-walled conidia.



cerebral pheohyphomycosis

(Image Courtesy of @ 2005)


A large encapsulated lesion in the brain.



Chromoblastomycosis of the hand due to Cladophialophora

(Image Courtesy of @ 2005)


Chronic verrucous chromoblastomycosis of the hand due to Cladophialophora carrionii.

Note tissue hyperplasia forming a white verrucoid cutaneous lesion.  In Australia, chromoblastomycosis due to C. carrionii occurs mostly on the hands and arms of timber and cattle workers in humid tropical forests.




Cladophialophora is a dematiaceous fungus primarily isolated from soil and decomposing plant materials.  Some species are prevalent in tropical and sub tropical regions. 




There are six species classified under the genus Cladophialophora namely, Cladophialophora carrioinii, Cladophialophora bantiana, Cladophialophora boppii, Cladophialophora arxii, and Cladophialophora devriesii.



Pathogenicity and Health Effects


Cladophialophora species is a causative agent of phaeohyphomycosis, chromoblastomycosis and mycetomaCladophialophora bantiana causes cerebral phaeohyphomycosis in the form of fatal brain abscess.   Cladophialophora bantiana may also cause skin lesions.  On the other hand, Cladophialophora boppii and Cladophialophora carrioinii are both isolated from chromoblastomycosis infected patients.  Cladophialophora devriesii has been reported to cause disseminated phaeohyphomycosis.


Trauma and exposure to soil are considered as the main predisposing factors for acquiring Cladophialophora carrioinii - induced infections while Cladophialophora bantiana is most likely acquired via inhalation.   



Macroscopic Appearance


      Growth rate of colony varies from one species to another;

     Colony texture is powdery to wooly and spreading; and

      Surface colony color is olivaceous green to black and reverse is black in color.


Note: Cladophialophora bantiana has a special feature of possessing urease activity.


                 Table 1.  Growth Rate Differences of Cladophialophora species.

Cladophialophora species

Growth Rate

Cladophialophora boppii

Grows moderately rapidly on potato dextrose agar at 25C.


Cladophialophora bantiana

Grows moderately rapidly on potato dextrose agar at 25C; Has the ability to grow at temperatures as high as 42 -43C.


Cladophialophora carrioinii

Grows slowly on potato dextrose agar at 25C and does not grow at temperatures beyond 35 - 36C.

                        Information gathered from



Microscopic Appearance


      Hyphae are septate, brown in color while conidiophores are frequently not differentiated from the vegetative hyphae;

      Conidia are unicellular, pale to dark brown, and often form chains from which the conidia readily disarticulate wherein the youngest conidium is located at the tip of the chain, and no attachment scars are observed; and

      Cladophialophora bantiana and Cladophialophora boppi may also produce chlamydoconidia.


                Table 2. Microscopic Differences of Conidia produced by Cladophialophora species.

Cladophialophora species

Characteristics of Produced Conidia

Cladophialophora boppii

Smooth walled conidia in long chains, unbranched, 2 3 x 3 - 4 m in size, unicellular, directly arise from the conidiophores, and no observed shield cells.


Cladophialophora bantiana

Conidia are unicellular, smooth and lemon shaped in long chains, 6 11 x 2.5 - 5 m in size, and no shield cells on conidiophores supporting conidia formation.


Cladophialophora carrioinii

Lemon shaped, unicellular conidia in long and abundantly branching chains, 4.5 6 x 2 - 3 m in size, and may be smooth or occasionally echinulate.

                       Information gathered from


Laboratory Precautions


Cladophialophora bantiana is an extremely hazardous fungus that should be analyzed only in a biological safety cabinet. Cladophialophora carrioinii should also be handled in a biological safety cabinet carefully. 





In vitro susceptibility testing methods for testing Cladophialophora species are not yet standardized and available data are very limited.  For Cladophialophora bantiana, MICs and MLCs of posaconazole are low while MICs and MLCs of caspofungin and anidulafungin are high.  Itraconazole and voriconazole show fungicidal effect on Cladophialophora bantiana strains.  MICs of itraconazole is generally low for both Cladophialophora bantiana and Cladophialophora carrioinii while MICs of amphotericin B for Cladophialophora carrioinii isolates appear somewhat higher compared to those of Cladophialophora bantiana.

The mycological information gathered and organized in this extensive research on different Pathogenic Molds was sourced out from the list of informative websites and reference below:


A Clinical Laboratory Handbook: Identifying Filamentous Fungi by St. Germain, Guy and R. Summerbell.

[Home] [Up] [Mold Species] [Absidia] [Acremonium] [Alternaria] [Aspergillus] [Aureobasidium] [Basidiobolus] [Beauveria] [Bipolaris] [Blastomyces] [Candida] [Chaetomium] [Chysosporium] [Cladophialophora] [Cladosporium] [Coccidioides] [Conidiobolus] [Cryptococcus] [Cunninghamella] [Curvularia] [Drechslera] [Emmonsia] [Engyodontium] [Epidermophyton] [Exophiala] [Exserohilum] [Fonsecaeae] [Fusarium] [Histoplasma] [Lecythophora Species] [Madurella] [Microsporum] [Mucor] [Paecilomyces] [Paracoccidioides] [Penicillium] [Phialophora] [Phoma] [Rhinocladiella] [Rhizomucor] [Rhizopus] [Scedosporium] [Scopulariopsis] [Scytalidium] [Sporothrix] [Stachybotrys] [Trichoderma] [Trichophyton] [Verticillium] [Wallemia] [Wangiella dermatitidis] [Yeast]

[Home] [Toxic Mold Species] [Mold Health Effects] [Mold Inspection] [Mold Remediation] [Mold Advice] [Mold-Terms-Terminology] [ Site Map] [Contact-Us]

Copyright 2002-2015 Environmental Hygienists All Rights Reserved   Updated Jan. 18, 2015